Secrets Of The Mountain

Bonnie McGuire


The old, wrinkled mountain looks over the shimmering Pacific, Remembering her youth, when the great  plain stretched as far as she could see. Here the Sun made his home, and his golden sons lived and loved in splendid palaces midst fragrant gardens. From her breasts flowed the goodness that nourished the whole earth. She sighs, tears of mist wetting the folds of her gown. They are all gone; the plain, her sons, and their joyous children…leaving her alone with her secrets. 

The South American republic of Peru has a Pacific seacoast of more than 1,400 miles from which the lofty Andes Mountains rise like a majestic barrier against the plain on the east. Some of these mountains reach a height of 20,000 feet near a coast that drops off into an abyss of equal depth. Not only is Peru incredibly beautiful, but also she has a legacy that may reach back to a civilization that existed over 14,000 years ago; her location between the hemispheres made her the navel of the earth. Is her real name Meru? Did her leaders become the deified god's of the ancient world?

Greek legends talk about the early ages of the world in terms of gods and cataclysms. Couched in symbolism, they tell about a universal mother who gave birth to the Titans, or divine kings who formed the first race, and were later honored as gods who brought civilization to men. Their birthplace was a mountain from which many rivers cascaded onto surrounding plains, altogether comprising an island continent in the middle of the Ocean. Although this island was known by many names to all peoples, the most popular one is Atlantis. The story of Atlantis was allegedly left to the Greek philosopher Plato by his ancestor Solon, who learned it from the Egyptian priests, who told him that they had recorded 14,000 years of history. Part of it contained the story of Atlantis, a powerful island in the Atlantic Ocean, that controlled some other islands and Europe. The aggressive Atlanteans attempted to conquer the weaker Mediterranean countries, but Athens surprised everyone by defeating them. Shortly afterwards a great tidal wave swept over the ocean nations.

Plato called the island Atlantis, but another writer of his century called it Meru.  Theopompus related a conversation between the king of Phrygia and a man named Silenus, in which the latter described a country larger than Asia, Europe and Libya combined, beyond the Atlantic Ocean, where a race of men called Meropes had extensive cities…"A country where gold and silver are so plentiful they are esteemed no more than we esteem iron.” His description matches Plato’s, but it’s location is beyond the Atlantic. Did Atlantis and Meru share the same island from which Europe derived it’s name. A close scrutiny of Atlantis reveals that Atl in the Nahuatl language means head of the waters…war, whereas Antis is the Quechua word for east which was later changed to Andes. This indicates Atlantis may have extended from the eastern Andean slope where the Amazon, Orinoca and Paraguay rivers begin their journey across the great plain now covered with forest. What about Meru?

Left is the ornament worn by Peruvian priests depicting twin serpents facing east and west ruling over their twelve satellites. Hindu legends describe Meru as the sacred Brahman city located upon a great mountain in the center of the earth from which four primeval rivers, or religions, flowed north, east, south and west…reflecting the glories of God. She was the Greek’s Garden of Hesperides, where a dragon named Ladon kept watch over the golden celestial sheep; the home of Medussa with her crown of serpents, whose magic could cause death or restoration to life. Above is the Medussa-like ornament worn by the Nasca priests of ancient Peru. I wonder if the two plumbed serpents at the center facing right and left represented the twins Meru and Atlantis ruling over their twelve satellites.

The ancient Europeans described her as the sacred Isles of the Blessed, where their souls would be received into sparkling glass palaces. So persistent was this belief in the western Paradise, that the mortally wounded King Arthur asked to be set in the sea…"for I wil into the vale of Avilon for to heal mee of my grievous wound; and if thou never here more of mee, pray for my soule.” Although the ancient Europeans and Egyptians placed their dead facing the west, the chief god’s of India came from the opposite direction. Indra, Nahusha, and others were kings of Meru, a mountainous island located south-east of India. Researchers identify Nahusha as Dionysus, son of Zeus, and grandson of  Poseidon, the king of Atlantis. He established an empire over thirteen islands of the civilized world, and obtained the sovereignty of three worlds, symbolized by the three pronged scepter of the kings of Meru / Atlantis. In the beginning Dionysus was a just king, but grew proud and made slaves of the Brahmans. Later he was transformed into a serpent and honored by the Greeks as the god of wine, and Bacchus by the Romans.

I believe that Meru and Atlantis shared the South American continent, but today it doesn't resemble the ancient descriptions of a large plain with a mountain in the center. Physical evidence indicates a large chunk of land may have broken off along the Andean ridge. In 1971 a group of scientists organized an expedition near the village of Otuzco to explore mountain caves mentioned by the Spanish. Deep within the earth they found layered caves, at the end of which were six watertight doors made of tremendous slabs of rock. Behind them were tunnels that led towards the coast with a steep downward slope; the stone floors were pitted and grooved to prevent slipping. These fifty-five to sixty-five mile long tunnels ended abruptly eighty feet beneath the ocean.

W. J. Thompson uncovered more evidence of a disastrous Pacific cataclysm during the early part of the last century. He and an old native deciphered some Easter island tablets that indicated the island was part of a large continent of land crossed with paved roads designed like a huge spider web: “…In that happy land, that beautiful land where Romaha lived with his beloved Hangarva. In that happy land governed the gods from heaven…There the black and white spider would have mounted to heaven, but he was held back by the cold…” Perhaps from the air their roads looked similar to this sketch of a spider web. Below, not far away on the Peruvian Nasca Plain, is an immense drawing of a spider and other forms, that were unknown until pilots discovered them. Is the spider connected to Easter Island?

This information was taken from the writings of Colonel James Churchward. While with the military stationed in India during the famine, he became friends with a priest. The Rishi taught him to decipher glyphs on tablets that had been stored in the temple vaults for thousands of years. These told the story of a highly civilized people living on a continent in the Pacific Ocean. He described the country as being Mu, but some of the oldest writings in the world call it Meru, the motherland of man. She was the ruler of a theocracy known as the Empire of the Sun. These people were great navigators who adopted various designs of the serpent, which became the symbols for their colonies in the Americas, Europe, Egypt, Mesopotamia, China and India. The national emblem of the sun symbolized the creator Ra, while the serpent represented his creative force. The earth representative of the Creator was the priest-king called Ra-Mu, who wore two plumbs on his crown as a symbol of his position. After centuries of development, Meru suddenly exploded, and sank into the Pacific Abyss. Some legends suggest this mishap resulted from war, and others suppose the possibility that a large asteroid passed too close to the earth. The following account was discovered by the archeologist Heinrich Schliemann in an old Buddhist temple at Lhasa, Tibet: “When the star of Bal fell on the place where now is only the sky and the sea, the seven cities with their golden gates and trans-parent temples, quivered and shook like the leaves in a storm; and behold, a flood of fire and smoke arose from the palaces. Agonies and cries of the multitude filled the air. They sought refuge in their temples and citadels, and the wise Mu arose and said to them: ‘Did I not predict all this?’ And the women and men in their precious stones and shining garments lamented, ‘Mu, save us!’ And Mu replied, ‘You shall all die together with your servants and your riches, and from your ashes new nations shall arise…If they forget they are superior not because of what they put on but what they do, the same will befall them!” Flames and smoke choked the words of Mu; the land and it’s inhabitants were torn to pieces and swallowed up by the depths.

It's interesting that the seed to Heinrich Schliemann's (at right) climb to fame began as a boy when his father read him the ancient epic tales by the blind poet Homer, who had lived around 850 BC. He was fascinated by Greek myths, particularly those connected with the story of the Trojan War, immortalized by Homer in his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Iliad tells the story of the anger of the Greek warrior Achilles at Ilion, or Troy; the Odyssey recounts the adventures of Odysseus on his way home from Troy to the island of Ithaka. The Trojan War began when Helen, wife of Menelaos, king of Mycenae, was abducted by Paris, a prince of Troy. The boy Heinrich was inspired to look for the places in the stories.  As a young man it became his goal. He married a Greek lady who spoke the language, and in time made enough money to follow his life long dream. The noted scientists of the time scoffed and laughed at his quest. After all, they were myths. Much to their embarrassment, Schliemann found Troy and it's vast treasure that had been buried (except in Homer's poems) for centuries. Naturally, the scientific snobs who previously rejected him now clamored to be his friends. Apparently, academia politics never changes. Equally interesting was Schliemann's find regarding the historical demise of the rich and powerful Meru written in the old Buddhist temple.

At left is King Neptune (Poseidon) with his trident sceptor. Anyone who has had experience with genealogy recognizes that pronunciation of Mu could be Mru that sounds like Meru. As with most names there are different spellings according to the ears and experience of the interpreter. Perhaps the Pacific land was Meru, the Andes Mountains were later Upa Meru, and the eastern plain was Atlantis. These three nations may have occupied the same continent in a hierarchy during successive periods as depicted by the Atlantean King's three prong trident scepter, that evolved into the cross. Their location between the hemispheres played a significant role in the development of the ancient world. The center of the earth's Son's of the Sun. Etchings found on ruins and tablets throughout the world clearly demonstrate the symbolic writing used by the ancient priests. These symbols sometimes comprised whole structures that could be seen from the sky.

The picture at the right was a mound in the Ohio Valley. One of the most ingenious symbols was the ancient Greek cross (left) composed of a crossed circle within a larger circle. The outer circle represented the universe, while the inner circle denoted the terrestrial earth within it. The cross showed the center of the world from which knowledge flowed into the various hemispheres much like the rays of the sun streaming from their source; the source was the central government of the Empire of the Sun. This symbol was very versatile. Removing the circles leaves a trident, or three prong scepter of the later design. Drawing a line from the cross bar to the top of the center post on either side creates the triangle, or earlier scepter. Extending the outer lines to the base of the post makes a pyramid, or celestial mountain.

The invisible lines of the equator and meridian divide the earth into four hemispheres that cross in the west near Howland Island in the Pacific Ocean, and just below Ghana, Africa in the Atlantic Ocean. Imagine a great pyramid rising miles above the earth using these crosses and the north/south poles for footings. The summit appears off the Peruvian coastline, placing South America within all four points of the earth in an area that could be described as an immense diamond composed of two triangles. Moving these two triangles towards the equator creates a uniting the forces from above with those from below; a symbol representing the twelve planets of our solar system with their counterpart "islands" below, that also revolved around a central sun. The triangle's lines comprise the North pole, Howland Island, South pole and Ghana Gulf. King Solomon's Seal indicated he was a Son of the Sun. Each side of the points equals 12 (Tribes of Israel?). The legend of King Solomon's Seal, of the wondrous signet ring which he received from heaven, is common to Judaism, to Christianity and to Islam. King Solomon's Seal, whose base is on the ground and whose tip reaches heaven, symbolizes a harmony of opposites, whose significance is manifold as much as it is multi-cultural. It reflects the cosmic order, the skies, the movement of the stars in their spheres, and the perpetual flow between heaven and earth, between the elements of air and fire. The Seal, therefore, symbolizes super-human wisdom and rule by divine grace.

Colonel Churchward estimated the plain of Mu (Mru) to have been 5,000 miles wide and 3,000 miles long. The giant crossed sun symbol marked a spot between East, North, West, and South; it's traditional role kept alive by the Inca royalty initiated into the Huaracu, or hierarchy during which time the candidates wore white shirts with a cross embroidered on the front. The monarch also preserved the custom of wearing a four colored fringed turban on his head, in which two upright plumbs from the Corquenque bird were placed like those of his ancestor Ra-Mu.

The Legends of the Jews, compiled by Louis Ginzberg, mention that the creation of the world began when God threw a fire-stone into the waters. The story mentions that Adam and Eve were born in a place at the center of the earth named Ahuzan. Later they migrated to another land. Rabbinical discussions describe their priestly robes. The Creation story in Genesis says that after God rested He placed a man named Adam eastward in an area stretching from Egypt's Nile (Gihon) to India's Ganges (Phison)...the area that comprised the Ad Empire. He breathed his breath into Adam, meaning Adam was a priest ( a Son of God symbolized by the Sun) who taught about God. The Adamites (pre-Israelites) made their appearance during the seventh day, or age following the creation of men and women in the image of the god's, during the sixth age...who in turn replaced the creatures with souls that crawled out of the waters in the previous age. These references indicate at least two major cataclysms during pre-historic times.

The fact that Adam was placed eastward suggests that the people of the sixth generation (or age) lived in the west. The popular theology says that the earth was created in six ordinary days. According to scripture, those were the generations of creation. A day can be 1,000 or a million years. It wasn't until after the Sabbath that God created Adam and Eve, who were not the first people, but rather the first of a dynasty. Don't forget the women who married Adam's sons, or the mysterious talking snake who shared their world. The name Adam means different things in various dialects ranging from "red" to "first." Ancient Arab legends mention that the Ad's who built the pyramids were of large stature, red-haired (to blond), reddish complexioned men. In these two pictures you can see the tufts of red hair on the mummified remains of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II. He died in the 12th Century B.C. after ruling Egypt 67 years. Ramses built two temples at Abu Simbel, one for him and one for his favorite royal wife Nefertari. Below is the Nefertari temple, with the Queen standing between statues of Ramses.

Since the name Adam means different things in various dialects ranging from red to first and we now can assume that Adam probably had reddish, or blond hair. But where does first come into the picture? The biblical story appears to be a symbolical history of the Adamic / Israelite  people and their struggle with two theologies that starts with the Genesis 3:15 allegory that is thoroughly explained in the cross-reference in Galatian's chapter four. Clearly you have the bond woman of priestly ritual, magic and law. The free woman needs none of it to communicate with God. Man's religion represents his spiritual side, and the Bible characterizes these organizations as women of various moral character depending upon their practices. Adam was obviously the first of a dynasty of priest-kings (similar to the Catholic Papacy), a Son of the Sun. His religion became corrupted with the sacrificial black magic of another religion. The legends of the Jews indicate that Adam and Eve wore priestly robes, and the first Eve sacrificed thousands of first born was the practice during Abraham's time. It was revived during Solomon's time (in the Valley of the Children) and condemned in the Book of Micah when the author asks God what offering would be acceptable. His answer was that the Creator wanted none of it (including the children), but rather... Micah worship his god humbly and be kind to his fellow beings. Moses got the people to substitute animals for children, but Jesus Christ freed the minds of men by becoming the final sacrifice; thus a new and better pattern for humanity. He put an end to a terrible religious practice. The old rites are still noticeable in the Christian Communion, but wine or grape juice is substituted for blood and bread for flesh to remember what Christ did for humanity...lest we forget and lapse into the dementia of former times. His martyrdom freed men's minds and lifted their consciousness to a better way of life here and hereafter. His teachings are the cornerstone of America's Constitution and greatness. However, since there's nothing new under the sun that hasn't been done during other times under different names and costumes, you can usually find the old practices symbolized in in many things we do with the firstborn being sacrificed to the fertility god for prosperity.

Some theologians may not agree. However, there are as many opinions as there are body parts. My opinions come from studying the writings and thoughts of our Founding Fathers and the Old King James Bible with cross-references and both Hebrew and Greek translations. It's a marvelous bible to study. An elderly Lutheran minister once told me that "No one knows how to do it anymore."  It's too bad. The cross references and comparable translations reveal that there's more to the texts than what first meets the eye. Kind of like putting the pieces of a puzzle together until you see a greater picture. As your experience and knowledge grows, so does your understanding of what you read. No wonder it is often described as being a living book.

The Egyptian priests told the Greek historian Herodotus that they had descended from the oldest men on earth, who lived in the west. This gives credence to the idea that Adam and Eve were priests who left civilization in the west and migrated eastward to teach about the Creator. A Hindu legend mentions that Adima and Heva dwelt upon an island, which they left to reach the mainland, before a terrible disaster occurred. There are many legends about terrible natural events. One tells what happened when a large celestial body passed to close to the earth. The atmosphere turned an ominous blood red, then grew dark as it filled with dust from the comet's writhing tail. Lightning crackled between the two bodies, as it grew closer, providing a frightening spectacle to the onlookers. "The events in the sky were viewed by the peoples of the world as a fight between an evil monster and a light-god who engaged the monster in battle...the tail of the comet leaping back and forth under the discharge of the flaming globe of the comet." After a few days of darkness, searing hurricane winds that whipped and burned the groaning earth, a violent shock caused the ocean to break over the continents. The mountain of water reduced populated areas to mud and gravel.

One of the best books for scholars of ancient legends and artifacts is "Atlantis, The Antediluvian World," by Ignatius Donnelly. The entire text can be found on the internet In Chapter IV he quotes an Iranian fundamental Zorastrian doctrine that could be considered one of the great flood stories. It relates how Yima (the father of the human race), was warned by Ahuramazda (the good deity) about an impending flood. Yima was told to construct a protected enclosure to store all the germs of men, beasts and plants to escape annihilation. After the inundation, Yima's enclosure survived...and the message of safety was brought to him by the bird Karshipta, the envoy of Ahuramazda. Most investigators of antiquity realize that it was customary for ancient people to deify their rulers. The bird Karshipta, being the envoy of Ahuramazda sounds very much like an airship. Don't laugh, because there are lots of stories about aircraft in religious texts. The Bible mentions Enoch's fiery steed that ascends into the heavens, and Ezekiel's wheels within wheels and the terrible crystal. And don't forget Moses' pillar of light. Ginzberg's Legends of the Jews further describes Enoch's steed that killed those standing too close as they watched him take off. Mohammed claimed to have received his inspired messages from a nearby star when he was on the mountain.

Donnelly relates an ancient Chaldean legend about a man named Khasisatra who lived during the time of the deluge. Evidently "the gods took council on the appeal of Anu...and a deluge was proposed by Bel...and approved by Nabon, Nergal and Adar." Sounds much like the United Nations Organization of that day. The lord Ea, knew about it and advised Khasisatra to quickly build himself a ship, and instructed him how to do it. When it was finished, Khasisatra gathered his wife, provisions, worldly possessions, servants, "son's of the people" and various animals inside the ship. Then Shamash told him he was going to make it rain that evening, so he'd better get into the ship and close the door. Shortly after that, a black, thundering cloud emerged and divested the mountains and plains.  The cloud became an inundation that swelled up to the sky making the earth look like a desert. Men couldn't see one another, and even the gods were frightened of the water spout. During the six days of wind, the combination waterspout-earthquake swept humanity into the muddy abysmal sea. On the seventh day it grew calm. Corpses floated like seaweed in a tremendous sea that covered everything except a mountain called Nizir. Finding his ship blocked by the mountain, Khasisatra sent out a raven that never returned, so he prepared a burnt sacrifice to thank the gods for his deliverance. The smoke attracted the attention of the gods who hovered above him like luminous crystals. However, the smoke also caught the attention of the warrior Bel, who stopped to see what was going on. He cried out angrily, "No one shall come out alive! No man shall be preserved from the Abyss!" Adar and Ea soothed him into mercifully letting the poor frightened man and his group live. Then Bel entered the ship and took Khasisatra by the hand and asked him and his wife to stand up. The lord turned around them and stopped short; then he approached the rest of the group saying: "Until now Khasisatra and his wife were made part of perishable humanity; but lo, now Khasisatra and his wife are going to be carried away to live like the gods, and Khisisatra will reside afar at the mouth of the rivers." Khasisatra said he was carried away to remote place at the mouth of the streams. Berosus says the god who gave the warning of the deluge was Chronos, the youngest brother of the Titans.

Another Chaldean story relates that Xisuthros and his family and friends took shelter in a vessel just before the summer solstice to escape a flood that was expected to drown everyone. He was told to steer his boat towards the gods. After a few days he discovered his vessel had grounded on the top of a mountain. He and his family and pilot left the boat and raised an altar on which they made a sacrifice. At that moment he and those with him vanished! When they didn't return to the ship, those left on board began to search for them, but a voice from the sky commanded them to worship the gods, and not to seek Xisuthros and his companions, because they had been carried away to live with the gods.

I chose these particular deluge legends because they reveal an advanced society, masquerading as gods. Khasisatra and his wife were carried away to a remote place at the mouth of the rivers, by the fearsome lord Bel. Xisuthros was instructed to steer his boat towards the gods, after which he and some others were physically removed and flown where? Yima received re-assurance from a group that arrived in a Karship that flew like a bird. Did the lord Auramazda who sent the envoy, live on the Andes mountains? During the catastrophe the western plain of South America may have broken off, whereas the eastern plain was partially submerged making that part of the Atlantic muddy for many years. This event occurred around the time the last mastodons and horses disappeared from the American continent...around 14,000 years ago. The memory of it was kept alive in the Inca summer Solstice Festival of Raymi, the Aztec New Fire Ceremony, and the Hebrew Jubilee. In all three cases the end of the world was preceded by repentance, prayer, and fasting. Following the dreaded time, a new Sun emerged, and the week long festival of the resurrection began.

Don't you wonder about the ancient lords of flight who carried the survivors of the flood away to live with them? The most vivid descriptions of their aircraft were recorded in Hindu manuscripts, which were probably written about events that took place long before the Sanskrit migration. James Churchward mentions a manuscript describing them. They were called Vimana's, capable of using magnetic energy from the atmosphere. Once they were turned on they could circle the earth indefinitely until they either wore out, or were turned off. Some flight records alleged they ran from 1,000 to 3,000 miles. Here's one of his descriptions: "When morning dawned, Rama, taking the celestial car which Pushpaka had sent to him by Vivpishand) stood ready to depart. Self-moving was that car; it was large and finely painted. It had two stories and many chambers with windows and was draped with flags and banners. It gave forth a melodious sound as it coursed along it's airy way."

Author Rene Noorbergen wrote that these celestial cars, or aerial chariots, were also used for destructive purposes: "The Vimanas were used in battle. An eighteen day war between the Kawavas and Pandavas who inhabited the upper regions of the Ganges....Shortly after a second battle was waged against the Vrishis and Andhakas in the same region. They used a terrible weapon: 'The violent Adwattan, remaining steadfast in his Vimana, landed upon the water and from there unleashed the Agneya weapon...Taking careful aim against his foes, the preceptor's son let loose the blazing missile of smokeless fire with tremendous force. Dense arrows of flame, like a great shower, issued forth upon creation encompassing the enemy. Meteors flashed down from the sky. A thick gloom of the compass were lost in darkness. Fierce winds began to blow. Clouds roared upward, showering dust and gravel....!" (Mahabharata)

This account reminds me of the passionate Lord of the old testament who destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah with some terrible weapon; and Ezekiels attempt to describe a craft of wheels within wheels that sounded like the noise of great waters, in which he saw the terrible crystal. Were these aircraft the same as those used by the lords who circled around Khasiasatra, and carried him away?

Equally interesting is the legendary origin of the Incas of Peru. The first Incas are supposed to have emerged from a House of Windows, from the place of the Sun, under the leadership of four brothers bearing the title Ayar. The eldest was a priest of the sun named Manco. among their possessions was a basket that gave them directions to search north for the empire. They also had a gold rod that would sink into the ground when the place was found. During their search the three younger brothers died. Cashi returned to get some things from a cave, and was betrayed by his Indian escort who rolled a large rock against the entrance. Uchu accidentally seized a mysterious statue, and was turned to stone, in the area later named Huanacauri. The third brother Auca was asked by Manco to fly to the top of a distant hill, where he also turned to stone. Eventually the group reached the hill, and the test of the gold rod established the site of Cuzco, which means navel of the empire.

My husband and I had an interesting experience during a logging conference in Reno, Nevada many years ago. One of the guest speakers was an immensely tall gentleman who operated a sawmill in Peru for a few years. He related an experience he and an Olympic basketball player had during a plane flight over the forest. They developed engine trouble and had to make an emergency landing near an Indian village. The villagers were delighted that these two giants dropped in on them just like their ancient gods had done centuries before. They happened to be celebrating the event and were going to include the lumberman and basketball player's drop from the sky in future celebrations. I was delighted to hear the story, because at that time Secrets of the Mountain was my thesis for Writer's Digest School in 1984. After the lecture I cornered the speaker to ask if he knew anyone in Peru who could give me some old legends. He wrote the address of a priest on my program. Much to my dismay I later discovered that I'd managed to throw the wrong program away and lost it.

It is now 2012. I wrote this story in 1984 during which time we have witnessed the terrible Indian Ocean and Japan Tsunamis that resembled what happened in the past. I find it interesting that the Bible is both history and prophecy; and that it compares the rise and eventual fall of civilization (as in the days of Noah and Lot) like forcasting the weather by observing the prevailing human conditions. Time brings many physical changes to the landscape, but human nature remains the same unless effort is made to improve it. Sigmund Freud (the father of psychoanalyst) observed that "civilization can only be obtained by giving up the lusts that lurk in our unconscious-unbridled sexual gratification, murder, incest, sadism, and violence. Only when man has mastered his impulses can he turn his energy into creative, civilizing channels." In other words, through self discipline individuals achieve marvelous things, and create great nations. The opposite human behavior brings them down as evidenced by the cyclic rise and fall of civilizations.



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